New smoothies made from Mediterranean plants show promising health benefits, according to a study

A latest examine printed in Antioxidants analyzed the potential well being advantages of modern smoothies primarily based on some typical Mediterranean plant merchandise, comparable to apples (Malus domestica (Md) juice, strawberry tree (Strawberry tree unedo (Au) fruit puree and enriched with Myrtus communis (Mc) purple berry extract, Crocus sativa (cs) petal juice, Acca sellowiana (As is Persimmon Diospyros (Dk) fruits.

Examine: Antioxidant exercise and digestive enzyme inhibition of the brand new strawberry tree fruit/apple smoothies. Picture Credit score: HJBC/Shutterstock

Introduction and background

There have been vital adjustments within the meals business in recent times because of the relationship between human well being and dietary parts of meals, leading to a pattern of wholesome consuming. Moreover, shopper tendencies have shifted in direction of selecting merchandise primarily based on sensory properties and their dietary and well being properties.

This has led the meals business to develop protected, wholesome and enticing merchandise to fulfill buyer calls for. Amongst ready-to-drink drinks, smoothies are of rising curiosity. They’re semi-liquid drinks with a clean consistency ready by mixing greens, fruits and different parts. They’re outlined as superfoods for his or her useful and well being protecting qualities.

Vital are the merchandise with antidiabetic or antioxidant properties that may be taken each day by wholesome topics and by these affected by continual illnesses. The therapy and prevention of those illnesses contain the consumption of meals wealthy in antioxidants comparable to polyphenols and lowering nutritional vitamins.

Nevertheless, these compounds are misplaced in comfort meals or extremely processed merchandise obtainable in grocery shops. Due to this fact, the meals manufacturing expertise should make sure the presence of compounds that promote human well being within the remaining meals merchandise.

Phenolic compounds, comparable to flavonols, anthocyanins, phenolic acids or flavan-3-ols, a subgroup of flavonoids, are necessary pure oxidants in lots of fruits or greens. Polyphenols assist cut back the development of heart problems, diabetes, most cancers and neurodegenerative problems, in addition to appearing as a prebiotic.

Anthocyanin is a crucial phenolic compound liable for the purple-red coloration of crops. These compounds are helpful in treating illnesses associated to oxidative stress, together with most cancers, diabetes and Alzheimer’s illness, in addition to irritation and most cancers. Moreover, the bioactive compounds in fruit might assist stimulate insulin secretion and cut back blood strain, serum ldl cholesterol, and triglycerides.

In regards to the examine

The examine concerned making an arbutus/apple fruit smoothie by mixing the arbutus fruit mousse with apple juice in a 25:75 ratio. Assays had been carried out to find out whole lowering energy, whole phenolic content material, and free radical scavenging exercise.

Intestinal Caco-2 cells had been used to carry out an MTT assay analyzing the poisonous exercise of the examined extracts and the intracellular manufacturing of ROS. Digestive enzyme inhibition exams and the identification and quantification of the extracted polyphenolic compounds adopted. The phloroglucinol technique was used to investigate polymeric procyanidins. Lastly, the sugar and natural acid content material of the extract was decided.

Examine outcomes

The outcomes indicated that the maximal antioxidant exercise ranged from 6.98 mmol Fe2+/100 g recent weight (fw) (Au/Md) to eight.75 mmol Fe2+/100 g fw (Au/Md + Mc). Probably the most vital antioxidant exercise was noticed in Au/Md + As and Au/Md + Dk and was positively related to the rise in whole phenolic content material.

Not one of the remaining product extracts had been reported to cut back cell viability. Moreover, pretreatment with all phenolic extracts was noticed to be related to inhibition of ROS formation.

Au/Md + Dk, Au/Md + As and Au/Md + Mc have been reported to result in barely decrease ROS ranges than the opposite two. Moreover, it was noticed that the share of ROS manufacturing within the extracts with concentrations of 10 and 20 µg/mL was equal to that of untreated cells.

The inhibitory exercise in opposition to α-amylase has been reported to vary from 64.70 (Au/Md + Mc) to 94.90 (Au/Md) mg fw/mL, with persimmon puree (Dk) and feijoa (As) as stronger inhibitors.

The inhibitory exercise in opposition to α-glucosidase ranged from 15.84 (Au/Md + Mc) to 27.12 (Au/Md + Cs) mg fw/mL and the identical α-amylase inhibition group confirmed l ‘stronger inhibition. The inhibitory exercise in opposition to pancreatic lipase ranged from 3.01 (Au/Md) to three.14 (Au/Md + Mc) mg fw/mL, with Au/Md being essentially the most potent inhibitor.

75 totally different polyphenols had been noticed within the 5 shakes that belonged to 6 subclasses, hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, dihydrochalcones, flavonols and anthocyanins.

The full quantity of polyphenols was totally different in all shakes; nevertheless, supplementing with feijoa flower or 5% purple myrtle berry extract has been noticed to additional enrich the pure antioxidants within the remaining product. 9 anthocyanins had been noticed, the quantities of which assorted between 530.72 and 635.96 mg/100 g.

The pure Au/Md shake was wealthy in such molecules, primarily cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside. Including 5% purple myrtle berry extract (Mc) to the shake has been noticed to counterpoint it in delphinidin-3-O-galactoside and -3-O-glucoside, malvidin3-O-glucoside and -3-O -glucoside, peonidin- 3-O-glucoside. Moreover, delphinidin-3,5-odiglucoside was noticed in smoothies enriched with saffron petal juice.

As well as, 24 hydroxybenzoic acids and their derivatives had been noticed in all shakes. Nevertheless, their composition was totally different in several merchandise: gallic acid glucoside I and II, digalloyl shikimic acid I, digalloylquinic acid I and galloyl shikimic acid, theogallin and galloyl glucoside I had been contained in all shakes.

The hydroxycinnamic acids detected included p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaroyloquinic acid, in addition to neo-chlorogenic and chlorogenic acids. Two dihydrochalcones had been reported in all shakes, the quantity of which elevated with the addition of saffron petal juice (Cs) and myrtle berry extract (Mc), whereas it decreased with the addition of feijoa flowers and persimmon puree. Moreover, a number of flavonols and flavan-3-ols had been reported whose composition differed in line with the ultimate product.

Moreover, sorbitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose had been reported in all remaining merchandise and the overall sugar content material ranged from 13.27 to 16.50 g/100 g. The best sugar content material was noticed within the smoothie enriched with purple myrtle berry extract, whereas the bottom within the pure base.

Probably the most plentiful sugars have been reported as glucose and fructose. It has been noticed that the addition of semi-finished merchandise to the pure base will increase the fructose content material, however the reverse is true for glucose. Eight natural acids have been reported within the remaining merchandise, together with citric, oxalic, ascorbic, quinic, malic, shikimic, isocitric and fumaric acids.

Amongst them, quinic and malic acids had been essentially the most plentiful. Moreover, the general sugar:natural acid ratio elevated resulting from every add-on in comparison with the pure base.


Thus, the present examine indicated {that a} strawberry tree/apple smoothie might be an necessary supply of bioactive compounds that inhibit sure digestive enzymes and antioxidant exercise.

Enriching the smoothie with totally different plant supplies can additional improve its nutraceutical potential. Creating extra of those smoothies may also help help the native meals provide chain and promote wholesome life.


One main limitation of the examine is that it makes use of in vitro fashions and outcomes can’t be translated stay.

Journal reference:

  • Gil, Okay. et al. (2023) “Antioxidant exercise and digestive enzyme inhibition of the brand new strawberry tree fruit/apple smoothies”, Antiossidanti, 12(4), p. 805. doi: 10.3390/antiox12040805.

Written by

Suchandrima Bhowmik

Suchandrima holds a Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Microbiology and a Grasp of Science (M.Sc.) in Microbiology from the College of Calcutta, India. The examine of well being and illness has at all times been crucial to her. Along with microbiology, she has additionally acquired in depth data in biochemistry, immunology, medical microbiology, metabolism, and biotechnology as a part of her grasp’s diploma.


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